Space program


Space program
   As the first country to launch a satellite (Sputnik) and send a manned spacecraft into orbit (piloted by Yury Gagarin), the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) long held the lead in the Cold War–era space race against the United States. However, with the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the subsequent economic hardships under Boris Yeltsin, Russia’s space program fell into disrepair, and came to rely on space tourism to supplement state funds. In order to maintain the Soviet space station Mir (Peace), the Russian Federal Space Agency (FSA or Roscosmos) was forced to collaborate with NASA, its American counterpart. Mir was de-orbited on 23 March 2001.
   In 1998, the two agencies, along with the space programs of Canada, Japan, and 10 European Union countries, started construction on the International Space Station (though the U.S. later signaled its desire to abandon the project). Under Vladimir Putin, the federal government has committed a massive investment toward expanding the space program, including replacing Soyuz spacecraft with the new Kliper model, expanding the Glosnass network, and sending unmanned flights to the moon and Mars.
   While Russia signed a deal to maintain its lease on the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan until 2050, it is simultaneously developing its Plesetsk Cosmodrome in Arkhangelsk and Vostochny (formerly Svobodny) Cosmodrome in Amur Oblast for future launches. The general director of the FSA is Anatoly Perminov. Roscosmos’s headquarters are located in Moscow, while the space flight operations center is located in the suburb of Korolev. The Yury A. Gagarin Cosmonauts Training Center (GCTC) is in Star City in Moscow Oblast. The Russian Space Forces are a special division of the military dedicated to extraterrestrial operations.

Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation. . 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • space program — noun a technological program intended to explore outer space • Hypernyms: ↑program, ↑programme • Instance Hyponyms: ↑Apollo program, ↑Gemini program, ↑Mercury program …   Useful english dictionary

  • space program — series of projects to study outer space …   English contemporary dictionary

  • Chinese space program — This article is about the Chinese space program in general. For the current Chinese space agency since 1993, see China National Space Administration. The launch of Tianlian, Xichang Center The space program of the People s Republic of China is… …   Wikipedia

  • Soviet space program — The Soviet space program consisted of initiatives within the Soviet Union by competing design groups. Being primarily a ownage military program, it was classified. Sergey Korolyov (also transliterated as Korolev) was the head of the principal… …   Wikipedia

  • Brazilian space program — The Brazilian space program is the most advanced space program in Latin America, with significant capabilities in launch vehicles, launch sites, and satellite manufacturing. It is based at the National Institute for Space Research (INPE), under… …   Wikipedia

  • Kerbal Space Program — …   Википедия

  • Soviet space program conspiracy accusations — The Lost Cosmonauts, or Phantom Cosmonauts, are cosmonauts who allegedly entered outer space, but whose existence has never been acknowledged by either the Soviet or Russian space authorities. Proponents of the Lost Cosmonauts theory concede that …   Wikipedia

  • The Old Negro Space Program — NASSA Lineup Directed by Andy Bobrow Written by Andy Bobrow …   Wikipedia

  • Space exploration — is the use of astronomy and space technology to explore outer space. [cite web | url = http://adc.gsfc.nasa.gov/adc/education/space ex/exploration.html | title = How Space is Explored | publisher = NASA] Physical exploration of space is conducted …   Wikipedia

  • Space tourism — is the recent phenomenon of tourists paying for flights into space pioneered by Russia.As of 2008, orbital space tourism opportunities are limited and expensive, with only the Russian Space Agency providing transport. The price for a flight… …   Wikipedia